Terminology[ edit ] An initialism is usually formed from some or all of the initial letters of words in a phrase. An acronym is sometimes considered to be an initialism which is pronounced as a word e.
Writing with the full Chinese characters is called kanji.
The two sets of kana characters are limited as… Katakana symbols consist of components of kanji and tend to be angular in shape. In addition, they often are employed for advertising headlines in print media and television and billboards and for use in electronic media, such as e-mail and text messages.
Hiraganaa cursive, graceful writing system, is composed of symbols derived by modifying portions of kanji. The syllabary is used in modern Japanese primarily to perform grammatical functions. That need arises because the kanji used extensively in written Japanese as nouns and verb stems cannot of themselves express the inflected forms of the Japanese language; hiragana symbols indicate inflection and possession, identify direct objects of sentences and phrases, and perform other grammatical functions.
Prepositions and many adjectives and common phrases are nearly always written in hiragana, as are numerous frequently used single words. A typical passage of Japanese writing, therefore, contains kanji, hiragana, and perhaps also katakana. Each kana syllabary consists of 46 basic symbols, the first five of which represent the vowels a, i, u, e, o.
The next 40 symbols represent syllables composed of an initial consonant or consonants followed by a vowel, e.
The final symbol represents a final n sometimes m. Additional sounds are represented by slightly modifying 20 of the basic katakana or hiragana symbols; that is done by placing nigori, a tiny circle or two small strokes resembling quotation marks, at the upper right-hand corner of the kana symbol.
In that way 25 new sound symbols are produced; e. Further sounds are represented by combining syllables. The long vowel sound rendered in romanized script with a macron over the vowel is written by adding one of the vowel symbols to a consonant-vowel kana.
Other modifications involve adding the ya, yu, and yo symbols as a subscript to a consonant-vowel kana. Some examples are ki and ya, pronounced kya, and shi and yu, pronounced shu. The vowel sounds on those three subscript kana can be lengthened by adding as a second subscript the corresponding vowel symbol e.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:Personal symbols & abbreviations. You should also try to develop your own list of personal abbreviations and symbols, which might .
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Kana, in the Japanese writing system, two parallel modern syllabaries (katakana and hiragana), each of which independently represents all the sounds of the Japanese yunusemremert.comgh each syllabary is based on elements from the ideograms (or characters) of the Chinese writing system (called kanji in Japanese), the two serve .
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