What causes gestational diabetes? Scientists believe gestational diabetesa type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, is caused by the hormonal changes of pregnancy along with genetic and lifestyle factors.
Criteria, which clinically establish an individual as suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus, include: One can easily interconvert these values using the following formulas: These graphs represent typical glucose tolerance curves for a normal person and one with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM, type 2 diabetes: The dotted lines indicate the range of glucose concentration expected in a normal individual during an OGTT.
Two main classifications of diabetes mellitus exist, idiopathic and secondary. Idiopathic diabetes is divided into two main types; insulin dependent and non-insulin-dependent.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM more commonly referred to as type 1 diabetes is defined by the development of ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy.
See the Diabetic Ketoacidosis diagnosis and treatment page. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM more commonly referred to as type 2 diabetes is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia but rarely leads to ketoacidosis.
Type 2 diabetes generally manifests after age 40 and therefore has the obsolete name of adult onset-type diabetes. However, due to the rising rates of adolescent obesity in industrialized countries there is an increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes in pre- and postpubescent children.
Type 2 diabetes can also result from genetics defects that cause both insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. There are two main forms of type 2 diabetes: Late onset associated with obesity.
Late onset not associated with obesity. There is a strong correlation between obesity and the onset of type 2 diabetes with its associated insulin resistance. Many children are obese and are developing type 2 diabetes at an alarming epidemic rate.
The dramatic rise in obesity in the US has lead to an equally alarming increase in the percentage of the population who suffer from the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors, one of which involves insulin resistance characteristic in type 2 diabetes.
It should be pointed out that obesity alone does not always lead to insulin resistance as some individuals who are obese do not experience insulin resistance and conversely, some individuals who manifest insulin resistance are not obese. These latter observations point to the added role of genetics in the acquisition of insulin resistance.
Secondary, or other specific types of diabetes mellitus are the result of many causes including: Maturity onset type diabetes of the young MODY was previously considered to be a third form of type 2 diabetes.
However, with the discovery of specific mutations leading to MODY, it is now classified under secondary or other specific types of diabetes. MODY is characterized by onset prior to age Evidence indicates that mutations in at least 14 different genes have been correlated with the development of various forms of MODY.INTRODUCTION.
Since the early s, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased in children and adolescents and is linked to the rise in childhood obesity. Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disorder with varying prevalence among different ethnic groups.
In the United States the populations most affected are native Americans, particularly in the desert Southwest. Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. Causes. The diabetes page presents a comprehensive discussion of the biochemical and clinical characteristics of type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as therapeutic mechanisms to intervene in the hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous condition resulting from a combination of reduced insulin secretion and increased requirement for insulin: the relative contribution of each varies from one individual to another.
Insulin secretion tends to decline with increasing age, and this may reflect the role. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, accounting for 90 to 95 percent of all cases.
In , more than 23 million people in the United States had diagnosed diabetes and an additional 7 million people likely had undiagnosed diabetes.