Database of alchemical manuscripts - Wellcome Institute Updated Dec 13 London, Wellcome Institute MS.
The Sale of Indulgences. It was built over the bones of the Galilaean fisherman, with the proceeds from the sale of indulgences which broke up the unity of Western Christendom. The magnificent structure was begun in under Pope Julius II.
The Reformation began with a protest against the traffic in indulgences which profaned and degraded the Christian religion.
The difficult and complicated doctrine of indulgences is peculiar to the Roman Church. It was unknown to the Greek and Latin fathers.
It was developed by the mediaeval schoolmen, and sanctioned by the Council of Trent Dec. In ecclesiastical Latin, an indulgence means the remission of the temporal not the eternal punishment of sin not of sin itselfon condition of penitence and the payment of money to the church or to some charitable object.
It maybe granted by a bishop or archbishop within his diocese, while the Pope has the power to grant it to all Catholics. The practice of indulgences grew out of a custom of the Northern and Western barbarians to substitute pecuniary compensation for punishment of an offense.
The church favored this custom in order to avoid bloodshed, but did wrong in applying it to religious offenses. Who touches money touches dirt; and the less religion has to do with it, the better.
The first instances of such pecuniary compensations occurred in England under Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury d. The practice rapidly spread on the Continent, and was used by the Popes during and after the crusades as a means of increasing their power.
It was justified and reduced to a theory by the schoolmen, especially by Thomas Aquinas, in close connection with the doctrine of the sacrament of penance and priestly absolution. God forgives only the eternal punishment of sin, and he alone can do that; but the sinner has to bear the temporal punishments, either in this life or in purgatory; and these punishments are under the control of the church or the priesthood, especially the Pope as its legitimate head.
There are also works of supererogation, performed by Christ and by the saints, with corresponding extra-merits and extra-rewards; and these constitute a rich treasury from which the Pope, as the treasurer, can dispense indulgences for money. This papal power of dispensation extends even to the departed souls in purgatory, whose sufferings may thereby be abridged.
This is the scholastic doctrine. The granting of indulgences degenerated, after the time of the crusades, into a regular traffic, and became a source of ecclesiastical and monastic wealth. A good portion of the profits went into the papal treasury.
It was to be confined to Rome, and to be repeated only once in a hundred years, but it was afterwards extended and multiplied as to place and time. The idea of selling and buying by money the remission of punishment and release from purgatory was acceptable to ignorant and superstitious people, but revolting to sound moral feeling.
The Lateran Council of allowed the Pope to collect one-tenth of all the ecclesiastical property of Christendom, ostensibly for a war against the Turks; but the measure was carried only by a small majority of two or three votes, and the minority objected that there was no immediate prospect of such a war.
The extortions of the Roman curia became an intolerable burden to Christendom, and produced at last a successful protest which cost the papacy the loss of its fairest possessions. On the Indulgence controversy: Schauplatz des Tetzelschen Ablass-krams.
On the Roman-Catholic side, Janssen: On Tetzel in particular: Leipzig,2d ed. Lebensbeschreibung des Ablasspredigers Tetzel. Tetzel, der Ablassprediger, etc. Compare also Bratke and Dieckhoff, quoted above.
Tetzel und Luther, oder Lebensgesch.Dante and the Donation of Constantine. 95 Pages. Dante and the Donation of Constantine. Uploaded by.
Dabney G Park. Download with Google Download with Facebook or download with email. Dante and the Donation of Constantine. Download. Dante and the Donation of Constantine. IEstimare debent, an quod inchoatur, reipublicse utile, ipsis gloriosum, aut prompturn effectu, aut certe non arduum sit.
Cic. Verr. i. Cum sibi omnes ad illum allegationes difficiles, omnes aditos arduos, ac poene interclusos, viderent. bis dat qui cito dat gives promptly bis in die (bid) twice in a day bona fide in good faith damnant quod non intellegunt Translation Notes God give happiness Traditional Czech brewer’s greeting.
Alexander Pope‘s An Essay on Criticism (): “To err is human, to forgive divine.” (line ).
page i. page ii. page iii the germania and agricola of caius cor1nelius tacitus, ~witit1 notes for colleges. by aw. s. tyler, proeissor of tiie greek and latin languago in amhierst coalleof new edition tdew york: d. appleton and comipany, 90, 92 & 94 grand street.
This Latin dictionary can be used to help create your own Latin sentences. Be wary though, as direct word translations can often remove the meaning. Modesto tamen et circumspecto iudicio de tantis viris pronuntiandum est, ne, quod plerisque accidit, damnent quae non intellegunt.
Yet students must pronounce with diffidence and circumspection on the merits of such illustrious characters, lest, as is the case with many, they condemn what they do .