The first apparent usage of the term "euthanasia" belongs to the historian Suetoniuswho described how the Emperor Augustus"dying quickly and without suffering in the arms of his wife, Livia, experienced the 'euthanasia' he had wished for. In particular, these include situations where a person kills another, painlessly, but for no reason beyond that of personal gain; or accidental deaths that are quick and painless, but not intentional. A kills another person B for the benefit of the second person, who actually does benefit from being killed". Based on this, she offered a definition incorporating those elements, stating that euthanasia "must be defined as death that results from the intention of one person to kill another person, using the most gentle and painless means possible, that is motivated solely by the best interests of the person who dies.
A General History of Euthanasia What we would term euthanasia, has been both practised and condemned by various cultures and civilasions since time immemorial.
In ancient times physicians had a dual role: Hippocrates separated the cure and kill functions of physicians. The prevailing social conditions of the latter nineteenth century began to favour active euthanasia.
In the Nazis replaced the Hippocratic Oath with the Gesundheit, an oath to the health of the Nazi state. Campaigns for the legalisation of euthanasia are widespread in many countries, with activists challenging through the legal system where they fail in legislature.
For almost always, on hearing that anyone had died swiftly and painlessly, he prayed that he and his might have a like euthanasia, for that was the term he was wont to use. Withdrawal or with-holding treatment was practiced in history, the correct term for this is orthothanasia, which means 'passive death.
In orthothanasia, the action of killing is not applied, but, passive actions are present in order to provide death. The place of euthanasia in the history of medical ethics The actions of easy death have been applied for hopeless patients who have Euthanasia essay religious views on assisted suicide suffering extreme pain since ancient ages.
These actions were forbidden from time to time. In Mesopotamia, Assyrian physicians forbade euthanasia. Again in the old times incurable patients were drowned in the River Ganges in India.
In ancient Israel, some books wrote that frankincense was given to kill incurable patients. Jewish society, following the teaching of the Bible and the sixth command "thou shall not kill", had rejected centuries ago every theory on shortening the life of handicapped or disadvantaged people.
Judaism considered life to be sacred and equated suicide and euthanasia with murder. One human life is as precious as a million lives, for each is infinite in value This practice was regarded as a way to protect the society from unnecessary burden, or as a way to 'save' the person from the burden of existence.
In ancient Greece, suicide of the patient who was suffering extreme pain and had an incurable terminal illness was made easy and for this reason, the physician gave medicine a poisoned drink to him.
The first objection to euthanasia came from the Hippocratic Oath which says "I will not administer poison to anyone when asked to do so, nor suggest such a course. However, history notes that sickly newborn babies were left outside, overnight, exposed to the elements.
Christianity brought more respect to human beings. Accordingly, every individual has the right to live since God creates human beings and they belong to Him and not themselves.
Death is for God to decree, not man. Like Judeo-Christian teaching, Islam also teaches that God is the only one who creates and the only one who may take life away.
The English philosopher, Francis Baconwas the first to discuss prolongation of life as a new medical task, the third of three offices: Preservation of health, cure of disease and prolongation of life.
Bacon also asserts that, 'They ought to acquire the skill and bestow the attention whereby the dying may pass more easily and quietly out of life. The earliest American statute explicitly to outlaw assisting suicide was enacted in New York inAct of Dec.
Laws 19 codified at 2 N. Between anda New York commission led by Dudley Field drafted a criminal code that prohibited "aiding" a suicide and, specifically, "furnish[ing] another person with any deadly weapon or poisonous drug, knowing that such person intends to use such weapon or drug in taking his own life.
An often quoted nineteenth century document is, 'De euthanasia medica prolusio,' the inaugural professorial lecture of Carl F. Marx, a medical graduate of Jena.
He argued that death either occurs as a sudden accident or in stages, with mental incapacity preceding the physical. Philosophy and religion may offer information and comfort, but the Physician is the best judge of the patient's ailment, and administers alleviation of pain where cure is impossible.
Marx did not feel that that his form of euthanasia, which refers to palliative medicine without homicidal intention, was an issue until the nineteenth century.
Darwin's work and related theories of evolution had challenged the existence of a Creator God who alone had the right to determine life or death. The first popular advocate of active euthanasia in the nineteenth century, was a schoolmaster, not a doctor.As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from yunusemremert.com Creating an Elite Class of Super Humans.
by John P. Thomas Health Impact News. This is the first part of a two part series exploring the relationship between the controversial eugenics movement of the past and modern genetics. The term “assisted suicide” is often interchanged with “euthanasia,” which is the practice of intentionally ending a life (usually of a terminally ill person) in order to relieve pain and suffering.
Suicide, homicide, physician-assisted suicide, violence (including domestic violence and gun violence), sudden death (from accidents and otherwise), dementia and other forms of lingering illness -- complex and difficult endings may bring complicated losses and complicated grief.
Similarly, the Roman Catholics disapprove physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia, on the grounds that it invades God's property and to assist some in committing suicide is to commit murder, which goes against God's unequivocal commandment "Thou Shall not Kill." Euthanasia is one of the most controversial topics facing religions.
The history of Western ethics Ancient civilizations to the end of the 19th century The ancient Middle East and Asia. The first ethical precepts must have been passed down by word of mouth from parents and elders, but as societies learned to use the written word, they began to set down their ethical beliefs.
These records constitute the first historical evidence of the origins of ethics.