Indeed, every time we return to the source of the Christian experience, new paths and undreamed of possibilities open up" Francis, Discourse, 4 October Jesus looked upon the women and the men he met with love and tenderness, accompanying their steps with patience and mercy, in proclaiming the demands of the Kingdom of God.

This is primarily a list of Greatest Mathematicians of the Past, but I use birth as an arbitrary cutoff, and two of the "Top " are still alive now. Click here for a longer List of including many more 20th-century mathematicians.

Click for a discussion of certain omissions. Please send me e-mail if you believe there's a major flaw in my rankings or an error in any of the biographies. Obviously the relative ranks of, say Fibonacci and Ramanujan, will never satisfy everyone since the reasons for their "greatness" are different.

I'm sure I've overlooked great mathematicians who obviously belong on this list. Please e-mail and tell me!

Following are the top mathematicians in chronological birth-year order. By the way, the ranking assigned to a mathematician will appear if you place the cursor atop the name at the top of his mini-bio.

Earliest mathematicians Little is known of the earliest mathematics, but the famous Ishango Bone from Early Stone-Age Africa has tally marks suggesting arithmetic.

The markings include six prime numbers 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 in order, though this is probably coincidence. The advanced artifacts of Egypt's Old Kingdom and the Indus-Harrapa civilization imply strong mathematical skill, but the first written evidence of advanced arithmetic dates from Sumeria, where year old clay tablets show multiplication and division problems; the first abacus may be about this old.

By years ago, Mesopotamian tablets show tables of squares, cubes, reciprocals, and even logarithms and trig functions, using a primitive place-value system in base 60, not Babylonians were familiar with the Pythagorean Theorem, solutions to quadratic equations, even cubic equations though they didn't have a general solution for theseand eventually even developed methods to estimate terms for compound interest.

The Greeks borrowed from Babylonian mathematics, which was the most advanced of any before the Greeks; but there is no ancient Babylonian mathematician whose name is known.

Also at least years ago, the Egyptian scribe Ahmes produced a famous manuscript now called the Rhind Papyrusitself a copy of a late Middle Kingdom text. It showed simple algebra methods and included a table giving optimal expressions using Egyptian fractions.

Today, Egyptian fractions lead to challenging number theory problems with no practical applications, but they may have had practical value for the Egyptians. The Pyramids demonstrate that Egyptians were adept at geometry, though little written evidence survives.

Babylon was much more advanced than Egypt at arithmetic and algebra; this was probably due, at least in part, to their place-value system.

But although their base system survives e. The Vedics understood relationships between geometry and arithmetic, developed astronomy, astrology, calendars, and used mathematical forms in some religious rituals. The earliest mathematician to whom definite teachings can be ascribed was Lagadha, who apparently lived about BC and used geometry and elementary trigonometry for his astronomy.

Apastambha did work summarized below; other early Vedic mathematicians solved quadratic and simultaneous equations. Other early cultures also developed some mathematics.

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The ancient Mayans apparently had a place-value system with zero before the Hindus did; Aztec architecture implies practical geometry skills. Ancient China certainly developed mathematics, in fact the first known proof of the Pythagorean Theorem is found in a Chinese book Zhoubi Suanjing which might have been written about BC.Dickens has also been praised throughout time for creating a gallery of unique personalities in his characters, an example of which is Scrooge.

Scrooge is today a household name in Britain and is universally understood to describe the ‘humbugs’ of Christmas. Topic: The joyous occasion of Christmas. How About Make It . A Wrinkle In Time - A Wrinkle In Time A Wrinkle In Time is an example of great American literature.

It is a plot-based novel with something always happening while an obstacle is standing in the way. Poem of the Masses. my smile melts with confusion artisticly enhanced she titty-danced her clients glanced at her mammarily-expansed bust, de-pantsed.

A summary of Analysis in Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of A Christmas Carol and what it means.

Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. As anyone can tell from the preceding reasons, Christmas is a great time of year. Getting a vacation from school, exchanging gifts with friends and family, and spending time with family all make the hassle of Christmas worthwhile.

The reasons that make Christmas a bad time of year are just not good enough to out- weigh the good ones. Archives and past articles from the Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, and yunusemremert.com

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Poem of the Masses