In some communities, the Aztec culture and language actually thrived over the centuries.
The Mexica supplied the Tepaneca with warriors for their successful conquest campaigns in the region and received part of the tribute from the conquered city states.
In this way, the political standing and economy of Tenochtitlan gradually grew. InAzcapotzalco initiated a war against the Acolhua of Texcoco and killed their ruler Ixtlilxochitl.
Tezozomoc died inand his sons began a struggle for rulership of Azcapotzalco. The Mexica were now in open war with Azcapotzalco and Itzcoatl petitioned for an alliance with Nezahualcoyotlson of the slain Texcocan ruler Ixtlilxochitl against Maxtla.
The Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan besieged Azcapotzalco, and in they destroyed the city and sacrificed Maxtla.
Through this victory Tenochtitlan became the dominant city state in the Valley of Mexico, and the alliance between the three city-states provided the basis on which the Aztec Empire was built.
These states had an economy based on highly productive chinampa agriculture, cultivating human-made extensions of rich soil in the shallow lake Xochimilco.
Itzcoatl then undertook further conquests in the valley of Morelossubjecting the city state of Cuauhnahuac today Cuernavaca.
The accession of a new ruler in the dominant city state was often an occasion for subjected cities to rebel by refusing to pay tribute. This meant that new rulers began their rule with a coronation campaign, often against rebellious tributaries, but also sometimes demonstrating their military might by making new conquests.
Motecuzoma tested the attitudes of the cities around the valley by requesting laborers for the enlargement of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan. Only the city of Chalco refused to provide laborers, and hostilities between Chalco and Tenochtitlan would persist until the s.
Motecuzoma therefore initiated a state of low-intensity warfare against these three cities, staging minor skirmishes called "Flower Wars" Nahuatl xochiyaoyotl against them, perhaps as a strategy of exhaustion.
His brother Tlacaelel served as his main advisor Nahuatl Cihuacoatl and he is considered the architect of major political reforms in this period, consolidating the power of the noble class Nahuatl pipiltin and instituting a set of legal codes, and the practice of reinstating conquered rulers in their cities bound by fealty to the Mexica tlatoani.
Axayacatl also conquered the independent Mexica city of Tlatelolco, located on the northern part of the island where Tenochtitlan was also located.
The Toluca valley was a buffer zone against the powerful Tarascan state in Michoacanagainst which Axayacatl turned next. In the major campaign against the Tarascans Nahua Michhuahqueh in —79 the Aztec forces were repelled by a well organized defense.
Axayacatl was soundly defeated in a battle at Tlaximaloyan today Tajimaroalosing most of his 32, men and only barely escaping back to Tenochtitlan with the remnants of his army.
Tizoc died suddenly inand it has been suggested that he was poisoned by his brother and war leader Ahuitzotl who became the next tlatoani.
His successful coronation campaign suppressed rebellions in the Toluca valley and conquered Jilotepec and several communities in the northern Valley of Mexico. A second campaign to the gulf coast was also highly successful.
He began an enlargement of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan, inaugurating the new temple in For the inauguration ceremony the Mexica invited the rulers of all their subject cities, who participated as spectators in the ceremony in which an unprecedented number of war captives were sacrificed — some sources giving a figure of 84, prisoners sacrificed over four days.
Probably the actual figure of sacrifices was much smaller, but still numbering several thousands. Ahuitzotl also constructed monumental architecture in sites such as Calixtlahuaca, Malinalco and Tepoztlan.
After a rebellion in the towns of Alahuiztlan and Oztoticpac in Northern Guerrero he ordered the entire population executed, and repopulated with people from the valley of Mexico. He also constructed a fortified garrison at Oztuma defending the border against the Tarascan state.
His early rule did not hint at his future fame.
He succeeded to the rulership after the death of Ahuitzotl.History and Discussion of Native American Languages. At the time of first European contact, probably close to 1, American Indian languages were spoken in North, Central, and South America.
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Arawak men and women, naked, tawny, and full of wonder, emerged from their villages onto the island's beaches and swam out to get a closer look at the strange big boat. The Economic History of Mexico.
The Economic History of Mexico. Richard Salvucci, Trinity University Preface. This article is a brief interpretive survey of some of the major features of the economic history of Mexico from pre-conquest to the present.
 The Christic Institute was given an unprecedented million-dollar fine for daring to bring the lawsuit. See a brief description of what happened to them in Jonathan Vankin and John Whelan's 50 Greatest Conspiracies of all Time, pp. Indeed, Aztecs and other minorities used to be kings and citizens of cultures crushed by the Spanish Inquisitional method in Central and South America, and by .